STEAM TURBINE IMPULSE AND REACTION BLADING
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Charles Parsons in The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible expansion process. The first device that may be classified as a reaction steam turbine was little more than a toy, the classic Aeolipile , described in the 1st century by Hero of Alexandria in Roman Egypt. In an impulse steam turbine driven car was designed by Ferdinand Verbiest. A more modern version of this car was produced some time in the late 18th century by an unknown German mechanic.
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The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating electrical power when combined with a generator. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and waterwheels. Gas , steam , and water turbines have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. Credit for invention of the steam turbine is given both to Anglo-Irish engineer Sir Charles Parsons — for invention of the reaction turbine, and to Swedish engineer Gustaf de Laval — for invention of the impulse turbine. Modern steam turbines frequently employ both reaction and impulse in the same unit, typically varying the degree of reaction and impulse from the blade root to its periphery. A working fluid contains potential energy pressure head and kinetic energy velocity head.