Forum on Miranda Fricker’s Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing - Philsci-ArchiveMiranda Fricker's book Epistemic Injustice is an original and stimulating contribution to contemporary epistemology. Fricker's main aim is to illustrate the ethical aspects of two of our basic epistemic practices, namely conveying knowledge to others and making sense of our own social experiences. In particular, she wishes to investigate the idea that there are prevalent and distinctively epistemic forms of injustice related to these aspects of our epistemic lives, injustices which reflect the fact that our actual epistemic practices are socially situated. Most of the book focuses on two such forms — Testimonial Injustice and Hermeneutical Injustice — and on the epistemic virtues required to counteract them. Testimonial Injustice occurs when a hearer fails, because of prejudice, to give due credit to the word of a speaker
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Fricker coined the term epistemic injustice , the concept of an injustice done against someone "specifically in their capacity as a knower", and explored the concept in her book Epistemic Injustice. Fricker is most well known for her exploration of " epistemic injustice ," the act of wronging someone "in their capacity as a knower. She identifies two forms of epistemic injustice: testimonial injustice and hermeneutical injustice. Testimonial injustice consists in prejudices that cause one to "give a deflated level of credibility to a speaker's word":  Fricker gives the example of a woman who due to her gender is not believed in a business meeting. She may make a good case, but prejudice causes the listeners to believe her arguments to be less competent or sincere and thus less believable. In this kind of case, Fricker argues that as well as there being an injustice caused by possible outcomes such as the speaker missing a promotion at work , there is a testimonial injustice: "a kind of injustice in which someone is wronged specifically in her capacity as a knower ".
Apart from the fictional example of Tom Robinson in To Kill a Mocking Bird , Miranda Fricker makes no explicit reference to the judiciary in this excellent and well argued book. But at least parts of it should be required reading for those involved with any system a central plank of which is the evaluation of testimony.
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